Brain organoid, also known as a cerebral organoid, refers to an artificial miniature organ that resembles the brain in vitro. In general, brain organoids are generated from pluripotent stem cells using a three-dimensional rotational bioreactor. The human brain is an extremely complex system that contains a variety of neuron types. In this case, human brain study, especially neurodegenerative diseases, becomes extremely difficult. Compared with rodent animal models, brain organoids present more advanced cell composition, maturation, and tissue architecture, which are closer to the human brain. In summary, brain organoids play important roles in neurological research and disease modeling.
Before being used as a model to study disease and gene expression, a series of assays are required for evaluation. For example, transcriptome analysis has been used to simulate the pathology of brain organoids. The TUNEL test is an evaluation indicator of apoptosis in brain organoids. Recently, computational methods have also been used to optimize the culture process of brain organoids.
Fig.1 Cerebral organoid at the interface of in vitro and in vivo. (Chiaradia, 2020)
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Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Cultivate Embryoid Bodies Induce Neuroectoderm Grow in Gel Droplet Spin Brain Organoids in Bioreactor Completed Brain Organoid Ready for Various Applications Fig.2 Schematics show the basic steps for the generation of the cerebral organoid.
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